At the junction between the two continents of North and South America, Panama separates the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean. Several indigenous tribes (cribs, cuttlefish and Guaymíes) not so different from the Incas and the Mayans lived in this region. In the sixteenth and seventeenth century, Panama was used as a base to send minerals and gemstones from Peru to Spain. Depending on Peru, the country was then treated to New Granada and remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when the union of “Gran Colombia”. In the mid-19, a railway line was built by the Americans the country was bound from one ocean to another. Then, a Frenchman, Ferdinand de Lesseps, began construction of a canal in 1880 to link the two oceans. Nine years later, work was halted due to political and financial scandal. The U.S. bought the rights to the French, for the sum of $ 40 million. Panama became independent in 1903, when he was recognized as a country of right by Uncle Sam. The relationship between the U.S. and Panama have maintained a significant economic issue so far.
Chronology of the history of Panama:
1501: Discovery of Panama by the explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas.
1519: Foundation of Panama.
1739: The country joins the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
1821: Panama obtained its independence to become part of the Gran Colombia.
1846: The Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty allows the U.S. to build a railway line.
1855: The State of Panama was created by the New Granada (now Colombia).
1880-1889: The French “Compagnie Premiere” is responsible for the construction of the canal.
1903: With the independence of Panama and with the support of the United States signed the treaty Bunau-Rod: The U.S. have rights to use the canal.
1915: Opening of the channel, considered at the time as the “8th wonder” of the world.
1920-1924: 3 rd term as president Belisario Porras.
1931: Coup d’etat carried out by the Patriot community action. For decades, presidents happen.
1964: anti-American riots.
1969: Board Civic: Demetrio Lakas Bahasa is president for a period of 6 years.
1972: New Constitution, General Omar Torrijos, becomes head of government until October 1978.
1977: Torrijos-Carter Treaty on the channel (valid until 1999), replaces the 1903 treaty, the country has secured control channel and recovers sovereignty over the Canal Zone, the U.S. administration is then replaced by the administration of America and Panama. In 2000, the neutrality of the Canal Zone would later be guaranteed by the U.S. and Panama.
1978: Aristides Royo elected president. There are new anti-American riots and involvement of the United States.
1987: New riots in order to obtain the resignation of General Manuel Noriega – the head of the Defence Force since 1983 (nicknamed “Pineapple Face”, accused of drug trafficking), took refuge in the Vatican.
1989: Guillermo Endara, the head of state, put there by the Americans.
1990: The country is secured channel management for the first time since 1914.
1992 Noriega extradited to the United States, is sentenced to 40 years imprisonment for drug trafficking.
1994: Ernesto Perez Balladares (El Toro) is elected president after the presidential elections for the first time in the history of Panama.
1999: Reversal of American sovereignty in the Canal Zone and the withdrawal of the last remaining troops in North America. Mireva Moscoso (widow of Arnulfo Arias) is elected president in front of Martin Torrijos.
2004: Martin Torrijos, a 40-year-old son of the old dictator, won the presidential elections of May 2, ahead of former President Endara.He ran under the label social-democratic alternative to the conservative party in power.